Cavernous sinus thrombosis cst is a rare infective disease. A carotid cavernous sinus fistula is an abnormal communication between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus caused by a tear in the artery wall, either traumatic or spontaneous. Cavernous sinus thrombosis is an infectious disease with 30% of. Cavernous sinus thrombosis radiology reference article. The dural sinuses are grouped into the sagittal, lateral including the transverse, sigmoid, and petrosal sinuses, and cavernous sinuses. Cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis intechopen. The cavernous sinus extends from the medial end of the superior orbital fissure to the petrous portion of the temporal bone.
Imaging lesions of the cavernous sinus american journal of. Mri, however, is better at detecting dural venous sinus thromboses 1,16. Cavernous sinus thrombosis cst is a rare condition, most commonly infectious in nature, and the diagnosis on imaging is not always straightforward. It is caused by a bacterial infection that typically originates in the face, sinuses, ears, or orbits 1. Not absolutely sensitive or specific for the diagnosis of cst.
Cavernous sinus thrombosis pediatric oncall journal. Diagnosis and management of acute bacterial sinusitis. The origin of aseptic cavernous sinus thrombosis is usually through trauma or a prothrombotic. Dwi shows a small acute infarction in the right flocculus. Ct and highfield mri in septic thrombosis of the cavernous. Cavernous sinus anatomy large venous space situated in the middle cranial fossa, on either side of body of the sphenoid bone.
Sagittal ct scan of the head demonstrating an enlarged, tubular right superior ophthalmic vein jones rg, arnold b. Cerebral venous thrombosis the radiology assistant. Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a serious lifethreatening condition with a high mortality. Journal of imab annual proceeding scientific papers 2012, vol. Cavernous sinus thrombosis symptoms, treatment, causes. Although it was associated with high mortality and morbidity rates in the preantibiotic era, these rates have remained high in the modern era. Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a blood clot in the cavernous sinuses.
Cavernous sinus thrombosis causes symptoms such as abnormally bulging eyes that occurs over days, swelling of the eyelid, severe headache, facial pain or numbness, impaired eye movements ophthalmoplegia with double vision, loss of vision, drowsiness, a high fever, and excessively dilated or uneven pupils. It is a network of veins that sit in a cavity, approximately 1 x 2 cm in size in an adult. Cavernous sinus thrombosis caused by contralateral. This condition is uncommon but a serious one and affects both children and adults. Jul 16, 2018 cavernous sinus thrombosis cst was initially described by bright in 1831 as a complication of epidural and subdural infections. Southwick 2016 septic dural sinus thrombosis, uptodate, accessed online 482016 2016 sanford guide, accessed on ipad app 482016. Cavernous sinus thrombosis information mount sinai new york. Cavernous sinus thrombosis statpearls ncbi bookshelf. Thrombosis of the cavernous sinussymptomscausestreatment. Cavernous sinus thrombosis represents the single cvt which produces a. The internal carotid artery and the abducens nerve are located medially within the sinus, covered by the endothelial lining of. Conclusion the novel fibrintargeted molecular mr contrast ep2104r allows. Thrombus formation within the cavernous sinus, which may be either septic or aseptic in origin.
Cavernous sinus thrombosis investigations bmj best. Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a blood clot in an area at the base of the brain. Lateral sinus thrombosis lst accounts for 6% of all intracranial complications in the era of antibiotic treatment of suppurative ear disease. Tumors of the nasopharynx, skull base, and sphenoid sinus may extend to the cs as can perineural and hematogenous metastases. Pediatric cavernous sinus thrombosis cst is a rare and lifethreatening complication of septic or aseptic etiologies, and is associated with low morbidity and mortality if aggressive therapies including antimicrobials, anticoagulation, andor surgical treatment are implemented early on. Cavernous sinus trombosis dr munish kumar g b pant delhi 2.
Challenging presentations of cavernous sinus thrombophlebitis. This area also contains nerves that control vision and eye movements. The carotid siphon of the internal carotid artery, and cranial nerves iii, iv, v branches v 1 and v 2 and vi all pass through this blood filled space nearby structures. Symptoms often start within a few days of developing an infection in the face or skull, such as sinusitis or a boil. The use of anticoagulation in patients with cavernous sinus thrombosis who have associated intracerebral hemorrhage secondary approach to the pediatric patient with vision change view in chinese conditions that predispose to specific types of vision change include thrombotic disorders cavernous sinus thrombosis, branch retinal artery. Because the highly variable symptoms, recent neuroimaging plays a key role in the diagnosis.
The blood drains it into other blood vessels that carry it back to the heart. Cavernous sinus thrombosis secondary to noninvasive sphenoid aspergillosis. Venous and dural sinuses thrombosis iscvt, 487 78%. Findings may include deformity of the internal carotid artery within the cavernous sinus, and an obvious signal hyperintensity within thrombosed vascular sinuses on all pulse sequences. As ct scanning of central nervous system cns and skull became prevalent, incidental abnormalities observed. Cavernous sinus thrombosis cst is the formation of a blood clot within the cavernous sinus, a cavity at the base of the brain which drains deoxygenated blood from the brain back to the heart. Dural venous sinuses are venous channels located intracranially between the two layers of dura mater.
Cavernous sinus thrombosis msd manual consumer version. The cavernous sinus, with its central location and many direct and indirect vascular connections, is particularly vulnerable to septic thrombosis from the face, nose, tonsils, teeth, and ears. The most common are neurogenic tumors and cavernoma. Contrast enhanced ctmri, in addition to the above mentioned findings shows presence of heterogeneous and asymmetric filling defects. Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a very rare, typically septic thrombosis of the cavernous sinus, usually caused by nasal furuncles or bacterial sinusitis. Intravenous heparin maintaining the partial thromboplastin time or thrombin clot time at 1. Enlargement of the left cavernous sinus is seen on precontrast t1 coronals. The imaging appearance of chronic, partially recanalized dural sinus thrombosis has been incompletely described. Diagnosis and management of cerebral venous thrombosis.
A thrombosis in this key crossroads causes cavernous sinus syndrome. These clots obstruct the vein in the aforementioned area of your body. A new treatment approach for cavernous sinus thrombosis. Cavernous sinus thrombosis is most often caused by a bacterial infection that has spread from the sinuses, teeth, ears, eyes, nose, or skin of the face. Cavernous sinus thrombosis article about cavernous sinus. Cavernous sinus thrombosis definition of cavernous sinus. A mri using flow parameters and an mr venogram are more sensitive than a ct scan, and are the imaging studies of choice to diagnose cavernous sinus thrombosis. Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a condition where a blood clot forms in the region under your brain and at the back of the eye socket. Magnetic resonance imaging mri with and without contrast and magnetic resonance venography mrv are the gold standard for diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis that allow for direct. Partially recanalized chronic dural sinus thrombosis. Cavernous sinus thrombosis is usually a late complication of an infection of the central face or paranasal sinuses.
Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a clinical diagnosis. Each cavernous sinus communicates with its counterpart on the opposite side by way of intercavernous communicationsthese are the anterior, inferior, and posterior intercavernous communications and the basilar venous plexus 2. Cavernous sinus thrombosis eye disorders msd manual. Read more about symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, complications, causes and. Septic cst is a rapidly evolving thrombophlebitic process with an infectious origin typically from the middle third of the face, sinuses, ears, teeth, or mouth, affecting the cavernous sinus and its structures. Cavernous sinus thrombosis definition msh formation or presence of a blood clot thrombus in the cavernous sinus of the brain. The cavernous sinus is a relatively large venous channel formed by a splitting of the dura mater on each side of the body of the sphenoid bone. Cavernous sinus thrombosis cst is an uncommon clinical condition caused by blood clot formation that obstructs the cavernous cavity. The clinical findings of sudden proptosis, accompanied by erythema of the eyelid, chemosis, history of proptosis, and restricted ocular. Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a very rare, lifethreatening condition that can affect adults and children in cavernous sinus thrombosis, a blood clot blocks a vein that runs through a hollow. This is a rare disorder and can be of two typesseptic cavernous thrombosis and aseptic cavernous thrombosis. On ct, various direct and indirect findings of cst may be. The sinus communicates directly with the veins of the orbit, so arterial pressure can be transmitted to the ophthalmic veins, which may become pulsatile. The prevention of thrombosis of the cavernous sinus is less feasible.
The progress in the understanding of central nervous system cns and skull base infections, is tremendous and it is more so in the case of fungal infections of cns and skull base, especially cavernous sinus cs fungal infection. A major blood vessel called the jugular vein carries blood through the cavernous sinuses away from the brain. The intracavernous internal carotid artery with its periarterial sympathetic plexus runs between the venules of the parasellar venous plexus fig. Molecular mri of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis using a new fibrinspecific mr contrast agent. Cavernous sinus thrombosis cst is a rare, lifethreatening disorder that can. Cst is associated with neurologic disability if not. Jul 16, 2018 cavernous sinus thrombosis is usually a late complication of an infection of the central face or paranasal sinuses. Also note heterogeneous enhancement of clival fat marrow c, a.
Cavernous sinus thrombosis cst is a rare condition, defined as a septic thrombophlebitis of the cavernous sinus. The carotid siphon of the internal carotid artery, and cranial nerves iii, iv, v branches v 1 and v 2 and vi all pass through this blood filled space. Findings on routine imaging that should make you think of unsuspected venous thrombosis. Intravenous heparin maintaining the partial thromboplastin time or thrombin clot time at. Cavernous sinus thrombosis is usually caused by the spread of bacteria from infections of the face and orbit including the skin of the nose, orbit, or sinus. The cavernous sinuses are hollow spaces located under the brain, behind each eye socket. The clot is meant to prevent the infection from spreading, but it often blocks the blood flow out of your brain. Molecular mri of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis using a new. This book is distributed under the terms of the creative commons. The cavernous sinus is one of the dural venous sinuses of the head. Symptoms and signs include pain, proptosis, ophthalmoplegia, vision loss, papilledema, and fever. Apr 05, 2019 thrombosis of the cavernous sinus is a life threatening disorder as it is highly infectious and maybe lethal despite the use of antibiotics.
Mar 22, 2018 cavernous sinus thrombosis is a potentially lifethreatening condition that can happen after an infection in your head. Postcontrast scans show absent blood flow in the left superior ophthalmic vein due to its thrombosis and dural thickening within left cavernous sinus caused by inflammation. Imaging of cerebral venous thrombosis sciencedirect. Imaging lesions of the cavernous sinus american journal. However, the patients should take antibiotics to treat pimples abscesses in the central area of the face in the initial stage. Cavernous sinus thrombosis cst is the formation of thrombus within the cavernous sinus, which could be septic or aseptic. Infection can spread to the cavernous sinus either as an extension of thrombophlebitis or by septic emboli. Cavernous sinus thrombosis cst was initially described by bright in 1831 as a complication of epidural and subdural infections. For more on aha statements and guidelines development. Cavernous sinus thrombosis information mount sinai new. In a patient with septic thrombosis of the cavernous sinuses ct demonstrated multiple filling defects due to clot formation, but 1. Cavernous sinus thrombosis an overview sciencedirect. There are only a few reports on cavernous sinus angiomas in the literature.
Indirect signs of cvt are more frequent and include the following findings. Most commonly the form is of septic cavernous sinus thrombosis. The cavernous sinuses consist of extradural venous plexuses surrounded by a dural fold. Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a lifethreatening complication that may rarely result from infection spreading back through the emissary veins from the maxillary or nasal region, or upper teeth, or from infected thrombi in the anterior facial vein or less commonly the pterygoid plexus. The survivors often suffer from permanent sequelae. Venous block oedema of eye lids, cornea, nose exophthalmos injury causing communication between. Current endovascular strategies for cerebral venous thrombosis. Tributary venosinus occlusion and septic cavernous sinus thrombosis. You are more likely to develop this condition if you have an increased risk of blood clots. Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a very rare disorder in which a blood clot thrombosis forms in the cavernous sinus a large vein at the base of the skull. This usually develops as a sharp pain located behind or around the eyes that steadily gets worse over time.
Pdf neuroimaging of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Cavernous sinus thrombosis cst is a rare, lifethreatening disorder occurring as a result of sepsis or secondary to aseptic causes in the setting of a thrombophilic disorder that has over the. Cerebral venous thrombosis cvt is a rare and potentially lifethreatening pathology. Cavernous sinus thrombosis an overview sciencedirect topics. Sepsis dangerous area of face, paranasal sinuses, nasal cavities neurological severe pain eye anf forehead ophthalmic n. Its marked by a blood clot behind your eyes or at the base of your skull. Early administration of heparin may serve to prevent spread of thrombosis to the other cavernous sinus as well as to the inferior and superior petrosal sinuses. The most common initial symptom of cavernous sinus thrombosis is a headache. Thrombosis of the right jugular vein, sagittal and right sigmoid sinuses was visualized on magnetic resonance imaging mri and magnetic resonance venography mrv. A keyword search of imaging reports for the terms cerebral venous thrombosis and dural sinus thrombosis was used, and a total of 30 cases of cerebral venous thrombosis were identified, imaged by mr from 1999 to 2005. Cavernous sinus thrombosis cst is a rare, lifethreatening disorder that can complicate facial infection, sinusitis, orbital cellulitis, pharyngitis, or otitis or following traumatic injury or surgery, especially in the setting of a thrombophilic disorder. Treatment cavernous sinus thrombosis is treated with highdose antibiotics given through a vein iv if an infection is the cause.
Sep 07, 2010 lateral sinus thrombosis lst accounts for 6% of all intracranial complications in the era of antibiotic treatment of suppurative ear disease. Cavernous sinus thrombosis is treated with highdose antibiotics given through a vein iv if an infection is the cause. Magnetic resonance imaging mri of the brain magnetic resonance venogram sinus xray. The infection may spread to involve the cerebrospinal fluid and meninges. The additional evaluation of the unenhanced ct scan might help to improve. Cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis cvst is a rare but important cause of stroke mostly affecting young adults. We report the case of a 56yearold female with a pathologically confirmed cavernous angioma of the cavernous sinus. Clinical and imaging followups 36 months after diagnosis are. Cavernous sinus thrombosis cst is the formation of thrombus clot within the cavernous sinus, which can either be septic or aseptic.
Treated patients may suffer from blindness, oculomotor weakness or pituitary insufficiency. Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a potentially lifethreatening condition that can happen after an infection in your head. Blood thinners help dissolve the blood clot and prevent it from getting worse or recurring. If bacteria spread to the brain, more severe drowsiness, seizures, coma, and abnormal. Cavernous sinus thrombosis investigations bmj best practice. Cavernous sinus thrombosis eye disorders merck manuals. Symptoms gradually resolved after treatment with enoxiparine and mrv demonstrated recanalization.
The cavernous sinus receives blood from veins of the face and brain. Note multiple filling defects due to thrombosis in cavernous sinuses solid arrows, b and in left inferior ophthalmic vein open arrows, b, which is one tributary of cavernous sinus. When mri performed in children with uri, 70% show major abnormalities of mucosa. Cavernous sinus thrombosis is generally a fulminant process with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Sudden onset proptosis secondary to cavernous sinus thrombosis from underlying mandibular dental infection. Mri with contrast is the imaging modality of choice to confirm its presence and to differentiate it from alternatives such as orbital cellulitis, which may have a similar clinical presentation. Case report an 8 year old boy came with the complaints of high grade fever since 2 days, severe pain, redness and swelling in and around the eyes along with diminution of vision in the right eye. Affecting the cavernous sinus and its structures, septic cst is a rapidly evolving thrombophlebitic process with an infectious origin, usually from the middle third of the face, sinuses, ears, mouth or teeth. Other causes include bacteremia, trauma, and infections of the ear or maxillary teeth.
Imaging techniques and laboratory tests are used for diagnosing this condition. Pdf early and accurate diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis cvt. Contrastenhanced mri brain shows bulging of the cavernous sinus. Cavernous sinus thrombosis symptoms, diagnosis and. It is mostly caused by an infection with high morbidity and mortality rate. A valveless system of sinuses and veins allows for easy spread of bacteria. Figure caption and citation for the preceding image starts. The venous connections of the cavernous sinus are illustrated in figure 3. Nov 05, 2017 cavernous sinus thrombosis is a condition where a blood clot forms in the region under your brain and at the back of the eye socket. We sought to more fully characterize the imaging findings of this entity on mr imaging, timeofflight mr venography tofmrv, and elliptic centricordered contrastenhanced mr venography cemrv. Infections of the paranasal sinuses and adjacent structures, craniocerebral trauma, and thrombophilia are associated conditions.60 1242 736 1135 1378 230 322 349 1336 69 1062 133 315 431 1503 893 1336 1208 1308 208 692 1548 1509 233 738 725 282 716 975 1124 1239 1002 591 1033 479 361 746 1182 508 787 642 766 37 1121 193 152 923 202 227 292