The ph stayed below 7 in both low salinity and high salinity cases. Although the mechanisms are still subject of research, wettability alteration or change in relative permeability of formation rock surfaces from preferential oil wetness to water wetness. The core contains quartz only, to investigate the role of clay in the mechanism of smart water eor. In omar, a dualstep watercut development was observed, which is characteristic for a change in wetting state. He authored a seminal book on reservoir engineering and over 200 papers in academic journals and spe. Almost 90% of the low salinity coreflood experiments were. Pdf mechanisms behind low salinity water flooding in.
Despite some efforts on investigating benefits of each method, the pros and cons of their. In standard water flooding oil recovery, water, typically sea water is injected on a macroscopic scale into the oilcarrying rock layers to push the oil from these injection wells towards a. He showed that lowsalinity water injection resulted in less than 0. Summary low salinity ls water flooding and co2 flooding are two new combination floods coupled due to the vital role of both in methods for increasing oil recovery. Colloids and interfaces free fulltext low salinity waterflooding. Mysteries behind the low salinity water injection technique. Enhanced oil recovery eor by combined low salinity waterpolymer flooding. If so, share your ppt presentation slides online with. Laboratory investigation of the low salinity water. Encouraging low salinity waterflood eor in the north sea. Lowsalinity waterflooding lswf is a potential new method for enhanced oil recovery eor in. International symposium of the society of core analysts, trondheim, norway. Low salinity eor low salinity eor is a recognised technique with examples of successful field applications around the world.
Enhanced oil recovery efficiency of lowsalinity water. Mechanistic modeling of low salinity water flooding pdf. An enhanced oil recovery method that uses water with a low concentration of dissolved salts as a flooding medium. Numerical study of low salinity water flooding in naturally. Comparative remaining oil saturation after high and low salinity water flooding lsw has the highest efficiency in terms of improved oil recovery e. When performing a secondary low salinity flood, the core is restored after the formation waterflood, and a new flood is performed with the low saline water. Lowsalinity flooding in a selected carbonate reservoir. Experimental investigation of the performance of low. The results proved that during flooding the free clay core by lowsalinity water the carboxylic acid detached from the sand, albeit not as great as that of the claycontaining cores. Spotlight on the new natural surfactant flooding in. Chemical mechanism of low salinity water flooding in sandstone reservoirs. In recent years, core displacement experiments performed on clastic rock samples using low salinity brine as injection fluid have proven to give a moderate increase in crude oil recovery. The model represents lowsalinity flooding using salinitydependent oilwater relative permeability functions resulting from wettability change. High salinity water flooding low salinity water flooding figure 28.
Enhanced oil recovery of low salinity water flooding in sandstone and the role of clay. Oil recovery efficiency and mechanism of low salinity. When ferrous ion is present in the formation water, that is, acidic water, the injection of lowsalinity water generally with neutral ph can yield. Wettability and lowsalinity water flooding 5th delft summer school pavel bedrikovetsky is professor of petroleum engineering at the university of adelaide. Having low recovery factor for carbonate settings, various eor eor techniques such as low salinity water injection 4,5, surfactant flooding 6, polymersurfactant sp injection 7, alkaline. January 12 sc hlumberger private 2 sis training low salinity water flooding lsw simple concept during water flooding inject fresh water or at least water with lower dissolved salts that the. View low salinity waterflooding research papers on academia.
Improved oil recovery mechanisms from low salinity water injection in clastic and carbonate formations practical process modelling approaches using new and existing features in cmg software differences between the simulation results of the mechanistic modelling. Brine with high salinity 100,000 ppm was injected to simulate formation water. Hasan an, flori re, brady pv 2018 insights into low salinity water flooding. Enhanced oil recovery of low salinity water flooding in sandstone. Low salinity waterflooding low salinityeor has attracted great. This study aims to investigate the possibility of using low salinity water flooding in naturally fractured reservoirs.
Effect of exposure time and crude oil composition on low. Lowsalinity water flooding lsw is a promising new technique for. Nanofluids and low salinity water lsw flooding are two novel techniques for enhanced oil recovery. Summary the mechanisms of low salinity water flooding lswf, as a costeffective and environmentallyfriendly technique for improved oil recovery, have been extensively investigated during the last years. Low salinity water flooding experimental experience and. This paper presents a new hybrid eor process where the. Low salinity waterflooding fundamentals and case studies. Low salinity and engineered water injection for sandstone.
When flooded with water that has a lower salinity than the reservoir formation water, free. Like alkaline flooding, low salinity water reduced the interfacial tension between the reservoir oil and water and ph elevation tended to make the rock more waterwet and low salinity as new technique of enhanced oil recovery. His research covers low salinity waterflood, formation damage and eor. Low salinity flooding of reservoir cores including cbm water, chemical analysis and in. Based on published data and new experimental results on core flooding, effects of ph and salinity on adsorption of acidic and basic organic components onto different clay minerals, clay properties like ion exchange capacity and selectivity, and oil properties, a new. Tadesse weldu teklu, xiaopeng li, zhou zhou, najeeb alharthy, lei wang, hazim abass. This is similar to other eor modeling, and conventional fractionalflow theory can be adapted to describe the process in. Brady pv, morrow nr, fogden a, deniz v, loahardjo nw 2015 electrostatics and the low salinity effect in sandstone reservoirs. Influencing factors and implications for low salinity water flooding in carbonate reservoirs. A proposed screening criterion for lowsalinity waterflooding is. The only concerns with this technique are water sourcing and water disposal. Modeling low salinity waterflooding in mineralogically different carbonates.
The recovery of crude oil from geological reservoirs is a complex process that bridges multiple length scales. Sea carbonate core samples using sulfatefree brine, with seawater contains. Oil recovery efficiency and mechanism of low salinityenhanced. Thereafter, the injected fluid is switched to low salinity water by diluting the formation water with distilled water until the salinity is in the range of to 2000 ppm. This low salinity water injection eor technique is also known in the literature as losal, smart water. Mechanistic modelling of low salinity waterflood in. A study of low salinity water flooding in 1d and 2d. Anticipated to be attractive for the north sea where there is long history of conventional waterflood. Reservoir engineers today are challenged in the design and physical mechanisms behind low salinity injection projects, and to date, the research.
Lowsalinity water flooding lsw is a promising new technique for enhancing oil recovery eor in both sandstone and carbonate reservoirs. Combined low salinity brine injection and surfactant. Modelling of low salinity water flooding using stars and gem cmg is now offering training courses online due to the current circumstances with covid19. The lowsalinity waterflooding is an attractive ecofriendly producing method, recently, for carbonate reservoirs. In standard water flooding oil recovery, water, typically seawater is injected on a macroscopic scale into the oilcarrying rock layers to push the oil from these injection wells towards a. Missouri university of science and technology, rolla, mo 65401, usa. Chemical mechanism of low salinity water flooding i n. The wettability changes are taking into account in terms of oilwater relative, saturation and capillary pressure as these parameters play a key role during the simulation of brine injection. Pdf chemical mechanism of low salinity water flooding in.
The relative permeability of the low salinity case indicates a more waterwet state than that of the high salinity flood. Summary low salinity ls water flooding is an eminent enhanced oil. Co2 was tested on increasing oil recovery, and the oil recovery increased by improved wettability alteration. Modelling of low salinity water flooding using stars and. Low salinity waterflooding fundamentals and case studies norman r. Ls water was examined by many laboratory and field works, and it showed an impressive result in enhancing oil recovery. This webinar discusses the low salinity water injection workflow available in gem and introduced a practical modelling workflow. Pdf the low salinity water injection method losal has become one of the.
Colloids and interfaces free fulltext low salinity. Although in this study, 5 pv of low salinity water was injected in each case, the incremental oil recovery was observed only during the first 1 pv of low salinity water injection for all the experiments. Injection of lowsalinity ls water has widely been practiced. He explained that the failure reasons are due to applying lowsalinity waterflooding after flooding by highsalinity water. Enhanced oil recovery of low salinity water flooding in. Potential of lowsalinity waterflooding technology to improve oil. Low water salinity during secondary injection mode played a major role on ultimate recovery with less contribution to tertiary polymer slug injection. Like alkaline flooding, low salinity water reduced the interfacial tension between the reservoir oil and water and ph elevation tended to make the rock more water wet and low salinity as new technique of enhanced oil recovery. Injection of low salinity water at the outset of reservoir. As wettability alteration toward be more waterwet has been observed in many promising cases, desorption of polar oil components from the rock surfaces should occur during low salinity waterflooding. Buy low salinity water flooding of heavy oil reservoirs. Novel insights into porescale dynamics of wettability. Wettability alteration was referred to as the reason for low salinity water injection with negligible reduction in interfacial tension. Sandstone core and freeclay sandstone core were prepared in chromatography columns, and core flooding experiments were performed to determine the eor.
The fourth oxygen anion, called the apical oxygen, is free compared to the basal anions. Chemical mechanism of low salinity water flooding in. Lowsalinity water and surfactants for hydraulic fracturing and eor of shales. Read effect of exposure time and crude oil composition on lowsalinity water flooding, fuel on deepdyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips. Learn the mechanisms involved in low salinity water injection lswi as an enhanced oil recovery eor process and the application of advanced simulation tools to model this process.
Low salinity as new technique of enhanced oil recovery. This low salinity water injection eor technique is also known in the literature as losal, smart waterflood, and advanced ion management. The unknown variables we solve for are water saturation s dimensionless, and concentrations cna, ccl, cca, cso, cmg in terms of mole per liter water. Low salinity waterflooding research papers academia. Comprehensive investigation of lowsalinity waterflooding. Interfacial properties and improved oil recovery by waterflooding, presented at technical advisory board for. The concept of surfactant flooding has long been recognized as a promising supplement to waterbased enhanced oil recovery methods. The 2d study focused on capturing the movement of the water saturation fronts. Low salinity waterflooding lsw and literature mechanisms. Insights into the mechanism of wettability alteration by. Wettability alteration during low salinity waterflooding. The sources of lowsalinity water are typically rivers, lakes or aquifers associated with meteoric water.
His research covers lowsalinity waterflood, formation damage and eor. The effect of total dissolved solids and permeability on the eor. The cumulative redistributed oil, presented in terms of saturation, is the amount of oil redistributed internally in the porous medium from the time of starting low salinity water flooding to the. Heterogeneity effects on low salinity water flooding. Low salinity and immiscible co2 combined flooding for. Several studies have been done on lswi water injection at laboratory scale and to a limited extent at. Low salinity waterflooding in carbonate reservoirs mdpi. Synergy of water secondary flooding and polymer tertiary flooding at different water salinity levels proved the efficiency of hybrid low salinity polymer flooding process in berea sandstone. Low salinity water flooding of heavy oil reservoirs. The responses to lowsalinity flooding differ for the two fields. Special issue on low salinity water flooding for enhanced. Numerical simulation of low salinity water flooding. The core samples used in this work are clay free and table 4 analysis of formation water therefore another flow mechanism was responsible for the increased oil recovery by lowsalinity flooding. Modeling of low salinity effects in sandstone oil rocks 97 directly involved in the waterrock chemistry model in terms of the mie process.361 1387 1243 1490 256 1129 1305 517 208 976 469 1340 935 1357 565 981 621 515 657 564 806 739 1210 386 1463 1035 268 314 70 1006 693 18 1318 1356 317 1161 1018 1213 446 87 470 491 1298 1227 174